Disruption
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
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  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
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Disruptive transformations of complex adaptive systems

Summary
This page reviews Christensen's disruption of a complex adaptive system (
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can illuminate and clarify complex situations and be applied flexibly.  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
).  The mechanism is discussed with examples from biology and business. 
Introduction
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can illuminate and clarify complex situations and be applied flexibly.  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
Complex adaptive systems
(CAS) are
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Physical forces and constraints follow the rules of complexity.  They generate phenomena and support the indirect emergence of epiphenomena.  Flows of epiphenomena interact in events which support the emergence of equilibrium and autonomous entities.  Autonomous entities enable evolution to operate broadening the adjacent possible.  Key research is reviewed. 
emergent
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
Agents
and the pools of their supplies and products exist while the dynamics of the
This page discusses the effect of the network on the agents participating in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Small world and scale free networks are considered. 
network
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
flows
sustain them.  A co-developing network will
This page reviews the inhibiting effect of the value delivery system on the expression of new phenotypic effects within an agent. 
mutually enforce synergies and constraints across the network
.  Agents separated from the network are however free to develop without the synergistic constraints into a different network.  If the two separated networks of agents become re-joined a
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
catalytic amplifier
may change the rates of flow through the network and some pools and agents that structurally depend on the old rates or resource levels may be disrupted. 

In business the phenomenon was described by Clayton Christensen as "The Innovator's Dilemma." 

He identifies conditions for the creation of a second agent network and later reconnection of the two sets of agents:
  1. They must replicate successfully
  2. They must scale
  3. They are different
  4. There is a
    Barriers are particular types of constraints on flows.  They can enforce separation of a network of agents allowing evolution to build diversity.  Examples of different types of barriers: physical barriers, chemical molecules can form membranes, probability based, cell membranes can include controllable channels, eukaryotes leverage membranes, symbiosis, human emotions, chess, business; and their effects are described. 
    barrier
    that separates the two networks for a
    Carlo Rovelli resolves the paradox of time. 
    Rovelli initially explains that low level physics does not include time:
    • A present that is common throughout the universe does not exist
    • Events are only partially ordered.  The present is localized
    • The difference between past and future is not foundational.  It occurs because of state that through our blurring appears particular to us
    • Time passes at different speeds dependent on where we are and how fast we travel
    • Time's rhythms are due to the gravitational field
    • Our quantized physics shows neither space nor time, just processes transforming physical variables. 
    • Fundamentally there is no time.  The basic equations evolve together with events, not things 
    Then he explains how in a physical world without time its perception can emerge:
    • Our familiar time emerges
      • Our interaction with the world is partial, blurred, quantum indeterminate
      • The ignorance determines the existence of thermal time and entropy that quantifies our uncertainty
      • Directionality of time is real but perspectival.  The entropy of the world in relation to us increases with our thermal time.  The growth of entropy distinguishes past from future: resulting in traces and memories
      • Each human is a unified being because: we reflect the world, we formed an image of a unified entity by interacting with our kind, and because of the perspective of memory
      • The variable time: is one of the variables of the gravitational field.  With our scale we don't register quantum fluctuations, making space-time appear determined.  At our speed we don't perceive differences in time of different clocks, so we experience a single time: universal, uniform, ordered; which is helpful to our decisions

    time

  5. Their cross network synergies differ in mutually incompatible ways
The natural obstacles to mixing include a profit constraint and a performance difference.  The destabilization and subsequent hollowing out of constrained businesses that were not cost competitive with a newly joined viable product pool is called disruption. 

By profit constraint we mean a
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
control decision to select flows
which maximize profit.  In general CAS
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Evolution's schematic operators and Samuel modeling together support the indirect recording of past successes and their strategic use by the current agent to learn how to succeed in the proximate environment. 
models
this equates to current high priority energy capturing
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
flows
being encouraged by regulatory
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
.  In systems which have
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolved
, coping mechanisms exist to limit such decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
.  Suppressors can be activated to place a brake on the control decisions which value current flows and select for the already high priority flows.  In cellular systems failure of suppressors are proteins: P53; which normally slow down cell growth but in cancer have lost this constraining capability. 
can result in out of control tumor behavior is the out-of-control growth of cells, which have stopped obeying their cooperative schematic planning and signalling infrastructure.  It results from compounded: oncogene, tumor suppressor, DNA caretaker; mutations in the DNA.  In 2010 one third of Americans are likely to die of cancer.  Cell division rates did not predict likelihood of cancer.  Viral infections are associated.  Radiation and carcinogen exposure are associated.  Lifestyle impacts the likelihood of cancer occurring: Drinking alcohol to excess, lack of exercise, Obesity, Smoking, More sun than your evolved melanin protection level; all significantly increase the risk of cancer occurring (Jul 2016). 


The difference in
This page reviews the inhibiting effect of the value delivery system on the expression of new phenotypic effects within an agent. 
extended alignment
between the two networks is reflected in business as a difference between the requirements of one networks major customer's job to be done and those of the other.  Both networks respond to the requirements with the most competitive products or solutions their agents can develop and remain viable.  When there is a significant difference between the two sets of requirements, and the more feature rich set are more costly to deliver, and the customer segments start to overlap then the low cost solution network agents will disrupt the other network's agents unless the high cost network agents can change their business model

Disruption can be seen as a parasitic is a long term relationship between the parasite and its host where the resources of the host are utilized by the parasite without reciprocity.  Often parasites include schematic adaptations allowing the parasite to use the hosts modeling and control systems to divert resources to them or improve their chance of reproduction: Toxoplasma gondii.   activity. 
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can illuminate and clarify complex situations and be applied flexibly.  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
host
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
typically defend themselves by suppressors such as immune has to support and protect an inventory of host cell types, detect and respond to invaders and maintain the symbiont equilibrium within the microbiome.  It detects microbes which have breached the secreted mucus barrier, driving them back and fortifying the barrier.  It culls species within the microbiome that are expanding beyond requirements.  It destroys invaders who make it into the internal transport networks.  As part of its initialization it has immune cells which suppress the main system to allow the microbiome to bootstrap.  The initial microbiome is tailored by the antibodies supplied from the mother's milk while breastfeeding.  The immune system consists of two main parts the older non-adaptive part and the newer adaptive part.  The adaptive part achieves this property by being schematically specified by DNA which is highly variable.  By rapid reproduction the system recombines the DNA variable regions in vast numbers of offspring cells which once they have been shown not to attack the host cell lines are used as templates for interacting with any foreign body (antigen).  When the immune cell's DNA hyper-variable regions are expressed as y-shaped antibody proteins they typically include some receptor like structures which match the surfaces of the typical antigen.  Once the antibody becomes bound to the antigen the immune system cells can destroy the invader. 
sub-systems, leveraging sexual reproduction enforces the mixing of current germ-line DNA of a male and a female organism, with a recombination process, to ensure the generation of new schematic recipes and phenotypes in their shared offspring.  Matt Ridley argues that the cost of sexual reproduction is justified by the protection from parasites that long-lived organisms gain. 
, where
Plans change in complex adaptive systems (CAS) due to the action of genetic operations such as mutation, splitting and recombination.  The nature of the operations is described. 
schematic mixing
maximizes the chance that
To benefit from shifts in the environment agents must be flexible.  Being sensitive to environmental signals agents who adjust strategic priorities can constrain their competitors. 
some offspring will be resistant
.  Parasites are forced to respond likewise and an
This page reviews the strategy of setting up an arms race.  At its core this strategy depends on being able to alter, or take advantage of an alteration in, the genome or equivalent.  The situation is illustrated with examples from biology, high tech and politics. 
arms race develops
.   The arms race requires, and hence maintains, the diversity of the
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
schemata
.  Parasitic competitive strategies can target any host structure including the host's ability to replicate is Richard Dawkin's name for the genotype since it has the evolutionary goal of surviving long enough to reproduce its schematic plan effectively.  The action of genetic operators means that the results of successful reproduction may be different to the parental genotypes and phenotypes (Dawkin's vehicle). 
its schemata.  Strategies have been found which use a protective sub-schema in the parasite along with a self-destruction sub-schema, expressed in agents that do not possess the protective sub-schema.  Crossing over, reconnects two DNA double helix chains A (1, 2) and B (1, 2) so that part of chain A1 and B1 become swapped.  Some part of B1 is now part of the A helix while some part of A1 is now part of the B helix.  's overhead can be justified by its ability to limit such strategies by potentially separating the impacting sub-schema from its self-protecting sub-schema turning the tables on the parasite. 

In business IBM's initial market share based strategy can be seen to have the effect of maximizing recombination and maintenance of resources and flows across its total eco-network.  The suppressor activity is complex requiring agents within IBM's regulatory infrastructure with connections to all the relevant businesses and the counter-intuitive power to constrain successful flows.  This strategy was particularly effective against parasitic strategies.  However, at the CAS level of the
States are instances of a high level emergent animal autonomous entity capable of entering an additional niche: amplifying resource capture and effective utilization; through improved collaboration, innovation and productivity. 

Emerging from cultural superOrganisms, states can evolve based on slow gene culture coevolution.  But so far, they have gathered limited schematic strategies for effective development, operation, reproduction and evolving.  Instead they are beginning to use memetic schemas to improve the rate of evolution.  With few instances and little time in existance, states current strategies are suboptimal in part because of poor memetic operators. 
 
nation states
, in whose economies is a human cultural superOrganism complex adaptive system (CAS) which operates and controls trade flows within a rich niche.  Economics models economies.  Robert Gordon has described the evolution of the American economy.  Like other CAS, economic flows are maintained far from equilibrium by: demand, financial flows and constraints, supply infrastructure constraints, political and military constraints; ensuring wealth, legislative control, legal contracts and power have significant leverage through evolved amplifiers. 
businesses operate, administrators were interested in encouraging the diversity stimulated by the arms race, so emergent
This page discusses the physical foundations of complex adaptive systems (CAS).  A small set of rules is obeyed.  New [epi]phenomena then emerge.  Examples are discussed. 
monopoly system rules
limit the market share strategy. 



























































































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integrating quality appropriate for each market
 
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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